To create an illustration and story board with 10 pictures on gender and juxtaposition using different approaches, based on our understanding. After which create an image manipulation using image, illustration and text.
MIND MAPPING ON GENDER
I chose to take the topic dowry since it still exists in all parts of India, either directly or indirectly. It exists in rich families as well as poor families.
In India, Dowry refers to the durable goods, cash, and real or movable property that the bride’s family gives to the bridegroom, his parents, or his relatives as a condition of the marriage.
It is essentially in the nature of a payment in cash or some kind of gifts given to the bridegroom’s family along with the bride and includes cash, jewellery, electrical appliances, furniture, bedding, crockery, utensils and other household items that help the newlyweds to set up their home. Dowry is referred to as Jahez in Arabic ( derived from Islamic jahez-e-fatimi).
The dowry system is so deeply rooted in India, that sometimes one feels that there’s going to be no way out-at least not for another century. Further, a girl needs to be married to a boy who belongs to a family with a status higher than that of her own family, this practice of marriage alliance is known as HYPERGAMY or ANULOMA. When a girl is married to a boy whose family status is lower than that of the girl’s, it is known as HYPOGAMY or PRATILOMA. Thus, anuloma has restricted choice and created a desire to give away a girl through marriage to a superior family.
For the secondary research, I searched on the following sub-topics.
PROBLEMS TO THE GIRLS
- Female infanticide
- Abortion after determining sex of fetus
- More labour burden
- Psycological suppression of girls
- Affinal relations
PROBLEMS TO THE MARRIED WOMEN
- Family conflict
- Conjugal disharmonies
- Lowering of women’s status
- Dowry deaths
- Treatments and humiliation
- Bride burning
- Women’s oppression/abuse/maltreatment
- Child marriages
- Unequal marriages
PROBLEMS TO THE PARENTS
- 1.Emotional disturbance, Psychological and Social Maladjustment of Parents
- Economic problems
- Adopting foul means of earning
- Hard works of the parents
Since parents are not able to arrange sufficient amount of money for dowry, they will allow their daughters and sisters to take up a job and earn some money to be utilized at the time of their marriage. The girls are asked to leave their schooling and forced to work.
Through my illustration, I have shown that the bride is giving away all the burden of dowry from her shoulders and the groom is busy collecting the money. The wedding knot is tied with money instead of the sacred cloth.
This story board shows the different things that are generally gifted to the groom’s family in the form of gifts.
BODY LANGUAGE impacts a great deal of how we communicate, and can reflect quite accurately what’s going on inside us.
It includes body movements and gestures (legs, arms, hands, head and torso), posture, muscle tension, eye contact, skin coloring (flushed red), even people’s breathing rate and perspiration. Additionally, the tone of voice, the rate of speech and the pitch of the voice all add to the words that are being used.
It is important to recognize that body language may vary between individuals, and between different cultures and nationalities. It is therefore essential to verify and confirm the signals that you are reading, by questioning the individual and getting to know the person.
The above image is taken in a shopping mall. A lady is seen shopping for ethnic wear. The lady with a kid is standing in a relaxed posture. Both her arms and legs are uncrossed. She seems to be resting her body weight on her left leg keeping the right leg relaxed. The man in black t-shirt is the salesman who is showing the clothes to the lady. His face expression shows that he is doing his work very seriously. There is one more lady in the picture who is wearing a blue and white suit. She seems to be an aged lady who is accompanying the lady with a kid.
In the above image, three people can be seen. The man in white t-shirt is sitting with one leg crossed over the other. Men who sit like this are not only perceived as being dominant, they are also seen as relaxed and youthful. This posture is seen as an insult because it shows the soul of the shoe and that’s the part that walks in dirt. The person sitting in the middle seems to be a taxi or auto rickshaw driver. He is trying to talk to the person sitting in a black t-shirt who does not seem to be very interested. The person in black t-shirt is also sitting with crossed legs which indicates that he is relaxing at the tea stall.
The term Batik is an indonesian-malay word which refers to the process of dying fabric by making use of a resistant technique, covering areas of cloth with a dye-resistant substance to prevent them from absorbing colours. To make a batik, selected areas are blocked out by brushing or drawing hot wax over them, and the cloth is then dyed. The parts covered in wax resist the dye and remain the original color. This process of waxing and dyeing can be repeated to create more elaborate and colourful designs. After the final dyeing the wax is removed and the cloth is ready for wearing or showing.
Contemporary batik, while qwing much to the past, is markedly different from the more traditional and formal styles. For example, the artist may use etching, discharge dyeing, stencils, different tools for waxing and dyeing, wax recipes with different resist values and work with silk, cotton, wool, leather, paper or even wood and ceramics.
Collage, derived from the French word “coller (to glue)”, is a technique of an art production, primarily used in the visual arts, where the art work is made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole.
A collage may include magazines and newspaper clippings, ribbons, paint, bits of colored or handmade papers, portions of other artworks or texts, photographs and other found objects, glued to a piece of paper or canvas. The origins of collage can be traced back hundreds of years, but this technique made a dramatic reappearance in the early 20th century as an art form of novelty.
The term collage was coined by both Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso in the beginning of the 20th century when collage became a distinctive part of modern art.
Watercolor is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-based solution. Watercolor painting has the reputation of being quite demanding. Unlike oil or acrylic painting, where the paints essentially stay where they are put and dry more or less in the form they are applied, water is an active and complex partner in the watercolor painting process, changing both the absorbency and shape of the paper when it is wet and the outlines and appearance of the paint as it dries. The difficulty in watercolor painting is almost entirely in learning how to anticipate and leverage the behaviour of water, rather than attempting to control or dominate it.
Vector graphics are created from points, lines, shapes and curves that are based on mathematical formulas. These elements are filled with color, blends, tints or gradients, and lines have a stroke attribute such as a solid or dashed line with different thicknesses and colours. The benefit of vector art is that it is reslution independent i.e. it can be scaled to any size, from large billboard to a business card, with no loss of detail or sharpness. Vector art is created using vector illustration software programs, such as Adobe Illustrator or Corel Draw.
5. PEN AND INK
In fine art, the term ‘pen and ink’ denotes a drawing technique involving the use of black and other colored inks which are applied to a support (generally paper) with either a dip pen or a reservoir pen. This traditional, versatile media has been used by Western artists since ancient Egyptian times, for sketches, finished drawings or ink and wash paintings. It is also one of the main mediums involved in book illustration and in Surrealistic automatic drawing.
1. High Speed Photography
High speed photography is the art of photographing a rapidly occurring event. depending on the event to be photographed, methods range from use of ultra-short time flash exposures to producing lots of exposures in a split-second. Seemingly frozen in time, a lot of photographers have their own special method of doing high speed photography. The usual photographic flash component offers a flash that lasts around a thousandth of a second (a millisecond). But photographic flash component used in high speed photography is so much quicker than this, and it creayes a flash of light around a microsecond (a millionth of a second). This lets us freeze time through pictures that are happening tremendously fast.
2. TILT SHIFT PHOTOGRAPHY
Tilt-Shift photography is a creative technique whereby a photograph of a life-size location or object is manipulated to give an optical illusion of a photograph of a miniature scale model. Altering the focus of the photography in Photoshop (or similar program) simulates the shallow depth of field normally encountered with macro lenses making the scene seem much smaller than it actually is. In addition to focus manipulation, the tilt-shift photography effect is improved by increasing color saturation and contrast, to simulate the bright paint often found on scale models. Most tilt-shift photographs are taken from a high angle to further simulate the effect of looking down on a miniature. The technique is particularly effective on buildings, cars, trains and people.
3. INFRARED PHOTOGRAPHY
Infrared, or “IR” photography, offers photographers of all abilities and budgets the opportunity to explore a new world-the world of the unseen. Our eyes literally cannot see the IR light, as it lies just beyond what is classified as the ‘visible’ spectrum-that which human eyes can detect. When we take photographs using infrared-equipped film or cameras, we are exposed to the world that can often look very different from that we are accustomed to seeing. Colours, textures, leaves and plants, human skin, and all other manner of objects can reflect IR light in unique and interesting ways, ones that cannot be mimicked with tools such as Photoshop.
4. PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHY
Panoramic photography, also known as wide format photography, is a special technique that stitches multiple images from the same camera together to form a single, wide photograph (vertical or horizontal). The term “panorama” literally means “all sight” in Greek and it first originated from painters who wanted to capture a wide view of a landscape, not just a certain part of it. The first panoramic photographs were made by simply aligning printed versions of film, which did not turn out very well, beacause it was close to impossible to perfectly align photographs. Today, digital panoramic photography is quite popular and common not only among landscape photographers, but also among architectural and cityscape photographers.
5. MOTION BLUR PHOTOGRAPHY
Motion blur is the apparent streaking of rapidly moving objects in a still image or a sequence of images such as a movie or animation. It results when the image being recorded changes during the recording of a single exposure, either due to rapid movement or long exposure.
RGB : 12-8-13
Black is a color that is often used to portray something evil, depressing, scary and even death. The black color is often negatively charged, as in “blackmail”, “blacklist” and “black hole” etc. Black is also a very powerful color that symbolizes class, elegance and wealth. Stylish clothing is often designed in black, everything from suits, to sexy black dresses, to formal black tie outfits. Black combined with other colors can have a very strong impact.
The color black is a color that fits in almost any design. It adds contrast and makes the other colors stand out more. Black is the color of the hidden, the mysterious and the unknown. It creates a sense of mystery and keeps things to itself, hidden from the rest of the world. The color black relates to protection against emotional stress. It creates a barrier between itself and the outside world. It provides comfort while it protects its feelings and hides its vulnerability, insecurity and lack of confidence.
RGB : 243-243-243
White is the color of new beginnings – wiping the slate clean. The color white is a blank canvas, just waiting to be written on. Although white does not stimulate the senses significantly, it paves the way for the creation of something that the mind can imagine. White contains a balance of all colors in the spectrum that represents both the positive and negative aspects of all colors.
The color white is reflective and stimulates openness, growth and creativity. We cannot hide behind it as it amplifies everything in its path. The color white is purity in the ultimate sense. Therefore, it is the reason why doctors wear white coats. White is a color that protects and encourages. It offers a sense of peace and tranquility, comfort and hope, and helps to relieve emotional disturbances. It gives a sense of order and efficiency, and it is a great help if we need to clean up our life. The color white offers an inner cleansing and purification of our thoughts, feelings and ultimately, our spirit. It is refreshing and strengthens our entire energy system. Although there are very few negative aspects of the color white, too much white (especially in Western culture) seems cold, isolated and empty. White can give a sense of sterility, distance and lack of interest.
RGB : 163-104-70
Brown is friendly and welcoming. It is loyal, trustworthy and reliable, in a practical and realistic way. This color is referred to as honest, genuine and sincere. It refers to the hard-working, diligent and reliable, with both feet planted firmly on the ground. Brown is sensual, sensitive and warm, and gives one a sense of calmness and comfort. It is a practical and sensible color, indicating common sense. The color brown is associated with healthy, natural and organic products, and everything related to the outdoors.
Brown is a scarce color that is not associated with abundance or waste in any form. It is materialistic, and appreciates quality above all else, but in limited quantities. Some brown colors may show a degree of sophistication, depending on what other colors they are connected to. For example, the color brown, with a soft white or ivory, looks elegant and classic, but still more casual than black combined with the same colors. The brown color suppresses feelings, and creates a haven from the outside world, where issues can be considered and resolved. It is a color that in no way calls for perfection, but rather promotes order and organization.
RGB : 78-57-217
Blue is a cool and calming color that shows creativity and intelligence. This color is popular among large companies, hospitals and airlines. It is a color that symbolizes loyalty, strength, wisdom and trust. It is also known to have a calming effect on the psyche. Blue is the color of the sky and the sea and is often used to represent these images. Blue is a color that generally looks good in almost any shade and it is a very popular color, especially among men.
Blue is sincere, reserved and quiet, and do not like to make a big deal out of things or attract too much attention. Blue hates confrontation and likes to do things its own way. From a color psychology perspective, the blue color is reliable and responsible and radiates security and trust. You can be sure that the color blue can take control and do the right thing in difficult situations. The blue color needs order and planning in its life, including the way it lives and works.
Gestalt is also known as the “Law of Simplicity” or the “Law of Pragnanz” (the entire figure or configuration), which states that every stimulus is perceived in its most simple form.
Gestalt theorists followed the basic principle that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. In other words, the whole (a picture, a car) carried a different and altogether greater meaning than its individual components (paint, canvas, brush; or tire, paint, metal, respectively). There are namely four principles under the Gestalt theory:
- Principle of similarity
- Principle of proximity
- Principle of closure
- Principle of continuity